This project aims to assist Albania in the preparation and submission of its First Biennial Update Report (1BUR) and its Fourth National Communication (4NC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), so as to fulfil its obligations to the Convention under Decision 17 / CP. 8, decision 2/CP17 and other related guidance.
The project work components include: (i) Description of the national circumstances, existing and intended institutional arrangements, identification of the constraints & gaps, related financial, technical and capacity needs and review of any other relevant Information; (ii) Preparation of the National inventory of anthropogenic emissions of all GHG by sources and removals by sinks not controlled by the Montreal Protocol; (iii) Vulnerability assessment and adaptation (V&A); (iv) Review of adopted mitigation actions, policy measures and intended Domestic Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) system; and (v) Publication and submission of First Biennial Update Report and the Fourth National Communication to the UNFCCC alongside Monitoring and Evaluation.
- Component on National Circumstances in the 4th National Communication will review the country main development priorities which will determine its ability to address implications of climate change. The review will include more detailed information about the country geography, climate, demography and structure of its economy and highlight in which aspects they are crucial for the ability to deal with mitigating and adapting to climate change. It will also describe the existing institutional and legal frameworks relevant for formulation and implementation of policies related to climate change and mention their specific roles and responsibilities. Moreover, major channels for exchange of information and data will be identified. Finally, the existing capacities to meet the requirements for the preparation of national communications and biennial update reports on a continuous basis will be evaluated.
- Component on the National Inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all GHG emissions not controlled by the Montreal Protocol will present data on national GHG emissions for the years 2010 - 2016 as part of the 1BUR and for the years 2017 – 2018 as part of the 4NC. Calculations of the emission inventories will follow the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. The emission inventories will include estimates of the greenhouse gas emissions from Energy, Industrial Processes & Product Use (IPPU), Agriculture, Forestry and Other land Use (AFOLU), and Waste. Calculations will cover 5 gases with direct greenhouse effect (CO2, CH4, N2O) and perfluorcarbons (CF4 and C2F6) and 4 gases with indirect greenhouse effect (CO, NOx, NMVOC and SO2).
- Component on Vulnerability and adaptation assessment as part of the 4NC will highlight impacts of climate change on key socio-economic secors (energy, agriculture, tourism and health) and natural resources (with special focus on water sector), which could have been observed during the last decade in Albania. The IPCC new set of climate scenarios will be used (IPCC AR 5, 2014). A stocktaking exercise will be conducted to map out the most vulnerable country zones / territories to climate risks. In addition a back to back study will explore the link between the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) for the development of response measures in the Vjosa river basin.
- The component on climate change mitigation in the 1BUR and 4NC will present an analysis of the existing CC related policy framework in the country. Description will draw on the institutional aspects and undertaken/planned activities under the 2015 - 2020 Cross-Cutting Environment Strategy, the INDC Albania submitted to the UNFCCC Secretariat on 24 September, 2015, the developed NAMAs on energy efficiency and fuel switch in the cement sector and the Climate Change Strategy and its Action Plan for Mitigation, adopted in July 2019.
- Within the context of the UNFCCC and the Albania's EU Accession Process, the 1BUR and the 4NC will support the efforts in the country to establish a national MRV system. An assessment will be carried out of the different options and possibilities for the national MRV, taking into account the national circumstances, existing and planned policies and regulations, institutional arrangements and technical capacities.
- The 1BUR and the 4NC will present updated information related to Albania’s financial, technical and capacity needs to address the adverse effects of climate change. Support provided by multilateral agencies, the GEF and Annex I Parties in the area of climate change will be described, including the technical and financial support received for the preparation of the First Biennial Update Report and the Fourth National Communication. Areas requiring enhanced support will be also described, according to Albania’s most pressing needs and national circumstances.
- Other information considered relevant to achieve the objectives of the Convention regarding capacity building activities implemented, climate research and systematic observation, activities to raise awareness on climate change, climate change education and steps undertaken by Albania to promote the transfer of environmentally sound technologies will also be included in the 1BUR and 4NC.
In order to fulfill the reporting requirements to the UNFCCC, Albania is planning to submit the First BUR in 2021 and the Fourth NC by the end of 2022. It is expected that their outputs complement the achievement of the objectives proposed in the Third National Communication Project and further contribute to the national development priorities of Albania.
UNDP’s Climate Promise: Enhancing National Determined Contribution (NDC)
Following the request of the Albanian Government and through the UNDP’s Climate Promise, the project is assisting the Ministry of Tourism and Environment to revise the country’s National Determined Contribution (NDC). The main scope is (i) The recalculation of the NDC baseline, under which updated data and new information will be provided; (ii) Adding of new sectors with regards to climate change mitigation, i.e. Agriculture, Forestry and Land Use; and (iii) Informing on the Climate Change Adaptation focused in the sectors of Tourism, Settlements and Population alongside the Coastal Zone of Albania. The above-mentioned plans will result in enhancing the overall mitigation target.
Since its launch on January 2019, the main progress benchmarks and achievements mark the followings:
- A Roaster of senior technical experts is established and running backed up by national junior ones whom are serving for the sustainability of the expertise as part of the National Communication process
- the respective updates are drafted under the National Circumstances, Institutional Arrangements, Constraints & Gaps, Financial & Technical Needs, Capacity needs and Other relevant Information;
- the time series for the GHG emissions for the years 2010 – 2016 for the sectors of Energy, Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use, Industrial Processes and Product Use, & Waste are prepared, have undergone the peer review process supported by the UNDP-UNEP Global Support Programme , draft National Inventory Report is drafted, the whole chapter is close to finalization before presented to the national stakeholders for their final inputs and endorsement;
- Series of capacity building/hands on trainings are offered in the area of GHG emissions inventory to representatives of the Ministry of Tourism and Environment, National Environmental Agency, other line ministries, and lectors and students of Tirana Polytechnic University;
- The background on MRV (Monitoring, Reporting and Verification) with country objectives, needs and recommendations is formulated; The preparatory work and broad consultations are carried out to come up with a solid proposal for support from the Capacity-building Initiative for Transparency;
- Under the Fourth National Communication of Albania to the UNFCCC, the focus is in Vjosa river basin: the climate change scenarios are downscaled for Vjosa River basin based on the new IPPC scenarios; impact assessment of current and future climate impacts on Agriculture, Water Resources, Health; Natural disasters, Soil erosion, and Hydrogeology involving also the GIS methodology is finalized; work is ongoing for the subsectors of Tourism, settlements, population and biodiversity;
- Additional support from UNDP is enabled through the “Climate Promise” initiative in close coordination with the NDC Partnership come up with the Revised NDC (national Determined Contribution) of Albania: after the preparation and publication of ToRs, the hiring process is underway for the international consultancy to draft the revised NDC.