Gender based and domestic violence
A Domestic Violence National prevalence population-based survey, conducted respectively in 2007 and 2013 and administrative records of reported and convicted cases reveal that the prevalence of domestic violence is high and increasing. Data show that GBV prevalence has increased from 56% in 2007 to 59.4% in 2013. More than half of Albanian women (aged 15-49) have experienced at least one form of domestic violence in their lifetime. Rural women, those with little or no education and married women are most affected by the phenomenon.
Violence is rooted deeply in the patriarchal traditions and customs as well as in unequal status of women and men in society.
UNDP works with relevant state institutions to effectively prevent and address violence in society in legal and evidence-based policy development; ensure multi-disciplinary services to gender based and domestic violence survivors. UNDP also works to build partnership between men and boys in breaking mind-sets and joining efforts to end Gender Based and Domestic violence.
In partnership with a variety of partners from the government, civil society and international organizations, UNDP has helped review the policy and legislation for a protective legal and social environment for gender based and domestic violence survivors.
In the area of law enforcement and relief services through community coordination, UNDP helped establish the community coordinated response mechanisms at local government level and worked to strengthen capacities of law enforcement state and non-state institutions to effectively prevent, identify, report and address gender based and domestic violence cases through multi-disciplinary and inclusive approaches.
UNDP continues to raise awareness and advocate for changing societal attitudes through the involvement of men, boys women and girls in the fight against domestic and gender based violence
Women's voice, participation and public oversight
Evidence has shown that when there is a critical mass of women participating in decision-making, the contributions and needs of women are more likely to be recognized and addressed. Women’s political participation in Parliament and municipal councils has been growing steadily in Albania. While attention has largely focused on women’s leadership and participation in Parliament, there is a pressing need to realize women’s leadership in policy and decision making processes in the executive, local governance, sectorial and other vital institutions.
Barriers lie in entrenched and male dominated political power dynamics at all levels as well as within political parties. The role of civil society, media and public oversight bodies needs to be strengthened to keep public authorities accountable for enforcing gender equality commitments in their daily work.
UNDP strives to ensure that women have a real voice at all levels of governance institutions so that women can participate equally with men in public dialogue and decision-making.
The recent introduction of 50% of gender quota in the local elections was instrumental in increasing women’s political representation in municipal councils by 35%, as compared to 12.2% in 2011 and 15% women mayors as compared to 4.6% in 2011.
UNDP is supporting the Albanian School of Public Administration to increase women’s leadership for local governance by encouraging them be change agents in policy and decision making processes.
UNDP partners with the municipal leaders and civil society so that the local development plans respond to the specific needs of women and girls, men and boys in the territories they administer.
UNDP has partnered with the Commissioner for Protection from Discrimination to increase outreach to vulnerable communities, men and women so that they report discrimination cases and benefit from protecting mechanisms.
Women's Economic Empowerment
Labor market participation in Albania is among the lowest in the region. Women’s participation is significantly lower at 54.7% compared to 74.4% for men.
In the economic field, there is occupational and sectoral segregation between men and women whereby women constitute only 9% of labour force in the lucrative and influential sectors of the market economy, still commanded by men.
Women earn only 57% of male average income. While young women face similar challenges as men when they graduate from secondary or tertiary school to enter the labour market, they are further burdened by gendered expectations that they attend to family and child care first.
Addressing low participation rates of women in labor market is a priority for UNDP. This is done through programs that encourage participation of young and adult women in entrepreneurial activities in priority sectors of the economy.
UNDP is supporting initiatives that aim to improve the economic situation of women in the rural and semi-rural areas of the country which generate self-employment opportunities for particularly poor, marginalized and vulnerable women, particularly women, heads of households.
Along with such initiatives, UNDP is reaching out to vulnerable women and girls and relevant state and non-state actors through literacy program on women property rights, labor and marital rights.